Now, when a young actor helps me, I adapt one of my novels to the stage and this bastard art immediately makes it possible for me to buy automobiles.” Robert Louis Stevenson wrote, toward the end of his life, to Mr. Sidney TECHNIQUE IN DRAMA 15 Colvin, “No, I will not write a play for Irving nor for the devil. Your lines are just words until you deliver them, but unless your voice is well-trained, they’ll still fall flat or sound forced. Go ye, announcing that he has risen from the dead. In his plays, we find challenge and convention, boldness and caution, daring technical experiment and poetic dialogues. Sud- denly the dead bird rose, turned into a beautiful woman, and fell into the hunter’s arms.” ” Look where we will, then, — at the beginnings of drama in Greece, in England centuries later, or among savage peoples today — the chief essential in winning and holding the attention of the spectator was imitative movement by the actors, that is, physical action. novelist — to make a rough generalization — works through the individual, the dramatist through the group. Currently, the use of dramatic The man who grows from a technique which per- mits him to write a good play because it accords with his- torical practice to the technique which makes possible for him a play which no one else could have written, must work under three great Masters: Constant Practice, Ex- acting Scrutiny of the Work, and, above all, Time. • Theme: While plot refers to the action of the play, theme refers to the meaning of the play. Dramatic techniques are used in multiple ways by Miller to convey different angles of the story while lighting patterns follow the dialogue or music to exhibit the play [s mood. the Lord is risen. Low light can create a frightening effect. Setting and stage directions. It is not difficult for the story-teller to make us believe that, be- tween a time late one evening and early the next morning, Blanche de Maletroit lost completely her liking for one man and became more than ready to marry Denis de Beaulieu, who entered the house for the first time on-this same evening. 3 0 obj It can be difficult to fully appreciate a piece of drama if you are reading it silently from a book. Dramatic Irony occurs when the reader knows a secret, but the characters in a play or work of fiction do not. _ Just as dialogue for the stage is incomplete without the ® % 12, DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE actor, so, too, the stage direction needs filling out. 154 . Glossary of Dramatic Terms Note: The Glossary is in alphabetical order. techniques above most traditional methods. Otherwise the book attempts to treat helpfully the many problems which the would-be dramatist must face in learning the funda- mentals of a very difficult but fascinating art. AndI have done it a long while, — and nothing ever came of it.” ? The limitations of any such at- tempt I fully recognize. Then read the novel after. Act One of the main divisions of the play. What in that technique is added to the basal practice of the past may even be to some extent the contribution of the young y x 4 DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE dramatist in question. endobj “I have found it very useful, when asked to dramatize a novel, not to read it myself, but to get some one else to read it and tell me about it. He never can use description, narration, analy- sis, and personal comment as his own. When all is said and done, this time difficulty caused by the greater vividness of stage presentation remains the chief obstacle in the way of the dramatist who would write of TECHNIQUE IN DRAMA ml a sequence of historical events or of evolution or devolution in character. That is all this book attempts. ? Such full discussion is impossible in a book the size of this one. This book is the result of almost daily discussion for some years with classes of the ideas con- tained in it, but in that discussion there was a chance to treat with each individual the many exceptions, apparent or real, which he could raise to any principle enunciated. At once, all the stuffing drops away, and the vital active part, the verb of the novel comes to the fore. Such close resemblance, however, is rare. C. G. Child. Simile: An indirect relationship where one thing or idea is described as being similar to another. a ae her Pete ts - x 4 Py j Ve . While the third lesson is being chanted, let four brothers vest them- selves, one of whom, vested in an alb, enters as if to do something, and, in an inconspicuous way, approaches the place where the sep- ulchre is, and there holding a palm in his hand, sits quiet. That is, the drama of any past time, if studied carefully, must reveal the essen- tials of the drama throughout time It must reveal, too, methods and devices effective for the public of its time, but not effective at present. That is, a story dramatized before when re-presented to the stage must share with the drama of the past certain characteristics if it is to be a play at all, but to some extent it must be presented differently. When, therefore, he who is seated sees the three approaching as if wandering THE ESSENTIALS OF DRAMA 17 about and seeking something, let him begin to sing melodiously and in a voice moderately loud Whom seek you at the sepulchre, O Christians? The characters are blind to facts, but the reader is not. Imitation of this individual technique in most instances results, like wearing the tailor- made clothes of a friend, in a palpable misfit. Obviously such difference be- tween the length of play and novel means different methods of handling material. If the stage of the moment forbids in any way the just representation of life, so much the worse for that stage; it must yield. Though aiming at a real diffi- culty, this device missed because it so vulgarized the original. [PDF] Writing For Emotional Impact Advanced Dramatic Techniques To Attract Engage And Fascinate The Reader From Beginning End Karl Iglesias Recognizing the habit ways to acquire this books Writing For Emotional Impact Advanced Dramatic Techniques … 18 DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE Obviously in this little play the directions for imitative movement fill three quarters of the space; dialogue fills one quarter; characterization, except as the accompanying music may very faintly have suggested it, there is none. In the theatre, according to the size of the auditorium, from one hundred to two thousand people watch the play, and under given conditions of light, heat, and ventilation. stream It does not deal with theories of what the drama, present or future, might or should be. In the novel, the author describes, narrates, analyzes, and makes his per- sonal comment on circumstance and character. Where? The psychology of the indi- vidual and the psychology of the crowd are not one and the same. Though the author writes the play, it cannot be properly judged till the producer stages it, the players act it, and the audience approves or disapproves of it. Comparison for a moment of the stage of the Greeks with the stage of the Elizabethans, the Restoration, or of today shows the truth of the first statement. The dramatist, if he tries for the same results as the novelist, must work more concisely. Tur EssEnTIALS oF Drama: AcTION AND Emotion . Play-readers and producers, however, seem not so sure of this distinction, for they are often heard saying: “The plays we receive divide into two classes: those competently written, but trite in subject and treatment; those in some way fresh and interesting, but so badly written that they cannot be produced.” Some years ago, Mr. Savage, the manager, writing in The Bookman on “The United States of Playwrights,” said: “In answer to the question, ‘Do the great majority of these persons know anything at all of even the fundamentals of dramatic construction?’ the managers and agents who read the manuscripts unanimously agree in the negative. How is he to win this attention? Lessing. The dramatist must TECHNIQUE IN DRAMA 13 move, not a considerable number of individuals, but at least the great majority of his audience. Perhaps, however, he has added something in technique particularly his own, to be found in the plays of no other man. CLEARNESS THROUGH WISE SELECTION 73 . The contents of this book were originally brought together from notes for the classroom as eight lectures delivered be- fore the Lowell Institute, Boston, in the winter of 1913. No matter how small the theatre or its stage, it cannot permit the intimacy of relation which exists be- tween reader and book. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 1008] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> endobj Bohn ed. They were carefully reworked for later lectures before audiences in Brooklyn and Philadelphia. A good illustration of this kind of technique is the difference in treatment of the An- tony and Cleopatra story by Shakespeare in his play of that name, and by John Dryden in All For Love. endobj Irony, foreshadowing, paradox and the aside are some examples of dramatic devices. What has just been said makes obvioug that the dramatist never works directly, but through intermediaries, the actors and the producer., More than that, he seeks to stir the in- dividual, not for his own sake as does the novelist, but be- cause he is a unit in the large group filling the theatre. The antiphon finished, let the prior, rejoicing with them in the triumph of our King, in that, death vanquished, he has risen, begin the hymn, We praise thee, O Lord. They are at a distance, in most cases, » * 8 DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE from the stage. Imitative movement is the drama of the savage. CHAPTER II THE ESSENTIALS OF DRAMA: ACTION AND EMOTION Wuat is the common aim of all dramatists? Daily we read in the newspapers with un- quickened pulse of horror after horror. It is certainly undeniable that many novels seem in material and at moments in treatment, as dramatic as plays on similar subjects. Act: A major division in a play. To create a dramatist would be a modern miracle. In order to accurately portray different characters and emotions, you need to expand your vocal toolbox and learn about the ways that range, pitch, and pronunciation affect your performance. These unlike conditions are bound to create differences in the pre- sentation of the same material. When you are writing about your work you need to be able to refer to these techniques in order to explain In the same scene, Antony, absorbed in adoration of Cleopatra, cries, when interrupted by a messenger from Rome, “Grates me; the sum.” Here we need the action of the speaker, his in- tonation, and his facial expression, if the speech is to have its full value. I gravely doubt the advisability of such courses for undergraduates. The dramatic structure [s various aspects such as … The earliest extant specimen of drama in England, circa 967, shows clearly the essential relations of action, characteriza- tion, and dialogue in drama at its outset. This acrid fable is well known; it is un- questionably the bitterest satire that was ever made on fe- male frivolity. MASSACHUSETTS Oasis A PREFACE “Tue dramatist is born, not made.” This common saying grants the dramatist at least one experience of other artists, namely, birth, but seeks to deny him the instruction in art granted the architect, the painter, the sculptor, and the mu- sician. The stories that Shakespeare chose for his plays are practically summaries. It is the art and techniques of dramatic compositions . 47 . Obviously, then, from many different points of view, the great art of the novelist and the equally great art of the dramatist are not the same. A dramatic device is any technique that a playwright uses to make a literary work more interesting and create a special effect on the audience. While it is true that selection and compression underlie all dramatic art, as they underlie all of the pictorial arts, it is no longer true, as it was in the mid-nineteenth century, that drama- tists believe that we should shape life to fit hampering con- ditions of the stage, accepted as inevitably rigid. Dramatic technique by Baker, George Pierce, 1866-1935. The teacher who is not widely eclectic in his tastes will at best produce writers with an easily recog- Vi PREFACE nizable stamp. The influence of the Greek drama on The Servant tn the House is unmistakable. Be- cause, first, the dramatist is using a stage different from that of his forebears, and, secondly, because he is writing for a public of different standards in morals and art. Why, however, is it impossible that some time should be saved a would-be dramatist by placing before him, not mere theories of play-writing, but the practice of the dramatists of the past, so that what they have shared in common, and where their practice has differed, may be clear to him? To develop theories of the drama apart from the practice of recent and remoter dramatists of differ- ent countries would be visionary. > . When novelists and would-be playwrights recognize that it is, has been, and ought to be an independent art, we shall be spared many bad plays. This is the result of the reader having a greater knowledge than the characters themselves. -each brother symbolizes a phase in the opposition to colonial rule (Gros-Jean: use of revolts/insurrection, Mi-Jean: use of intellect, Ti-Jean: use of common sense, belief in community Historically studied, the English drama shows that char- acterization appeared as an added interest when the inter- est of action was already well established. The instruction which most helps to that must be done, not by books, not by lectures, but in frequent consultation of pupil and teacher. These facts account for the widespread and deeply-rooted belief that any novelist or writer of short sto- ries should write successful plays if he wishes, particularly if adapting his own work for the stage. Each dramatist worked sincerely, believing the technique that he used would give him best, with the public he had in mind, his desired effects. He must move his audi- ence, too, not by emotions individual to a considerable num- ber, but by emotions they naturally share in common or by his art can be made to share. Then he added his magic. A novel we read at one or a half-dozen sittings, as we please. Usually he is told, ‘In the School of Hard Experi- ence.” When the young playwright whose manuscript has been returned to him but with favorable comment, asks what he is to do to get rid of the faults in his work, both evident to him and not evident, he is told to read widely in the drama; to watch plays of all kinds; to write with end- less patience and the resolution never to be discouraged. He reads and sees past and present plays, probably in large numbers. Greek plays were not divided into acts. The novel is, so to speak, the work of an individual fa play is a codperative effort —of author, actor, producer, and even audience.! When he has mastered the first technique, and from the second has made his own what he finds useful in it, he is likely to pass to the third, his individual additions. If I were to write a play on Hamilton, I would look up an article in an encyclopeedia; then make a scenario; then read detailed biographies. 234 MEDVOATOGUIGuLci fe. Dramatic techniques are used by the playwright to enhance meaning and understanding amongst the audience. Having said this, however, let him rise and lift the veil, and show them the place empty of the cross, but the clothes, only, laid there with which the cross was wrapped. 829-330. \ What the dramatist selects for presentation must be more productive of immediate effect 1 Robert Louis Stevenson: The Dramatist, p. 7. One young author went so far as to make the first lover of Blanche flirt so desperately with a maid-servant off stage that the report of his conduct by a jealous man-servant was the last straw to bring about the change in Blanche’s feelings. The differences brought about by the greater speed, greater compactness, and greater vividness of the drama, with its impersonality, its codperative nature, its appeal to the group rather than to the individual, create the fundamental technique which distinguishes the drama from the novel. Secondly, there is the special technique of a period, such as the Elizabethan, the Restoration, the period of Scribe and his influence, etc. Dramatic techniques. If he is like most young dramatists, for example Shakespeare on the one hand and Ibsen on the other, he works imitatively at first. Climax The crisis or high point of tension that becomes the … What is true of the English drama is of course equally true of all Continental drama which, like the English drama, had its origin in the Trope and the Miracle Play. Imagine the horror and outcry if we were to put upon the stage a dramatized news- paper or popular magazine. CHARACTERIZATION . Why, then, should they not write at will either in the form of stories or of plays? From this difficulty have arisen, to create a sense of time, the Elizabethan use of the Chorus, our entr’acte pauses, interpolated scenes which draw off our attention from the main story, and many other de- vices. In a story or novel, mere clearness would demand more because the author could not be sure that the reader would hit the right intonation or feel the gesture which must accompany the words. 2 Idem. Techniques Elements Symbolism -Significance of 3 in the play: 3 brothers, 3 acts, 3 manifestations of the devil (Papa Bois, The Planter, The Devil). In the drama, so far as the dramatist is concerned, we must travel alone. These, which make the special usage of his time, become the tech- nique of his period. The novel appeals to the mind and the emotions through the eye. These things are done, indeed, in representation of the angel siting within the tomb and of the women who came with spices to anoint the body of Jesus. We rather expect a novelist to reveal himself in his work. He, too, has his Love’s Labor’s Lost, or Feast at Solhaug. It has been recounted a thousand times after Petronius, and since it pleased even in the worst copy, it was thought that the subject must be an equally happy one for the stage. The most elaborate of the Miracle Plays, the Towneley Second Shepherds’ Play and the Brome Abraham and Isaac * prov Lire la suite, Soyez libre de nous contacter par Phone, ou envoyez nous un mail contact-faqbook @paymbongo.com, la_grande_vie_de_jesus_christ_tome_2_ludolphe_le_chartreux_vita_christi, s'initier à la programmation claude delannoy, réinitialisation du compte mygoldrev, machine électrique, informatique industrielle circuits logiques programmables memoires pld cpld et fpga mémoires, pld, cpld et fpga, idées directrices pour une phénoménologie, SPONDOLYSCOPE - ENGLISH - JEAN PIERRE PETIT, la_grande_vie_de_jesus_christ_tome_2_ludolphe_le_chartreux_vita_christ [...]. On the producer depends wholly the scen- ery, lighting, and properties used. The art of the playwright is not, then, the art of the novelist. This book, then, is meant, not to replace wise classroom instruc- tion, but to supplement it or to offer what it can when such instruction is impossible. DRAMATIC STAGING CONVENTIONS-HOW THE PLAY IS STAGED 1. . � ��m��B�C�0}�$:���y��. Today we hear much discussion whether it is what is done, 7.e. The stage appeals to both eye and ear. As long as they stirred his imagination, that was all he asked of them. Nor, as the drama develops, does physical action cease to be central. However, there is not enough empirical evidence that supports the use of theatrical techniques in the English classroom, particularly in Southern Chile, with students who come from rural schools and who have shown low achievement rates. The former expressed by gestures how very glad he was he had found so fine a bird; neverthe- less he would not kill it. The dramatist has no time to waste. x��][s�6�~���x��l��ޔ�b{fvSIU��}ȜY�-��HE������ xAR$�JfF�@t�nth4�ͯ�n~y��#1o~^%�d%�& �ww����? MaxineG A SCENARIO Ps athe lal Ae) Mie d aeeaeD . Most of the problems, and much of the It aims to show what successful drama has been in differ- ent countries, at different periods, as written by men of highly individual gifts. We have good dialogue for a novel when Cleopatra says, “I'll seem the thing I am not; Antony will be himself.” The fact and the characterization are what count here. <> The inge- nuity of author, producer, scenic artist, and stage mecha- nician must labor until the stage is fitted to represent life as the author sees it. Throughout the centuries a very different technique has distinguished them. Is not play-writing an art of falsification rather than truth?” A living French novelist once exclaimed, “I have written novels for many years, with some returns in reputation but little return in money. The reputation of the novelist rests very largely on the verdict of his individual readers. 509 Barereenar ath tread oes A (a ee ule rth nite RRS DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE CHAPTER I TECHNIQUE IN DRAMA: WHAT IT IS. An act can be sub-divided into scenes. The trouble with both these critics of the drama was that they held a view of the stage which makes it necessary to shape, to twist, and to contort life when represented on it. Dramatic devices create a particular mood or emphasize points in storytelling. . Recognizing the limitations of the second and third, he should study them for suggestions rather than for models. In most novels, the reader is, so to speak, personally con- ducted, the author is our guide. For theatrical talent consists in the power of making your characters not only tell a story by means of dialogue but tell it in such skilfully de- . that enhances the meaning of a detail in a literary work. Drama techniques Different drama techniques can be used to explore situations and issues. Only in rare instances does a play arrive in the daily mails that carries within it a vestige of the knowl- edge of the science of drama-making. Can you not see that the work of falsification, which a play demands is, of all tasks, the most ungrateful? Now in the drama we cannot harbour this suggestion; what we hear has happened in the story, we see really occur; what we would doubt of in the story, in the drama the evidence of our own eyes settles incontrovertibly. Indeed, both in and out of the classroom they have been slowly revised in the intervening five years. This is not the place to discuss in detail the relation of a dramatist to his audience, but it is undeniable that the psychology of the crowd in a theatre is not exactly the same thing as the sum total of the emotional responses of each individual in it to some given dramatic incident. Glossary of Literary and Dramatic Terms Act: A major division in a play. When allowance is made for waits between the acts, the manuscript should probably be somewhat shorter. A dramatic device is a convention used in drama as a substitution for reality that the audience accepts as real although they know them to be false. It is just for that reason that short stories are easier dramatized than long novels. (Ward in Wright 1985) DRAMATIC TECHNIQUES • Ward placed an emphasis on the external skills which children display through that process: characterization, development of Witness, too, the change late in that cen- tury from the widespread influence of Scribe to the almost equally widespread influence of Ibsen. It is in large part just because dra- matic dialogue isa kind of shorthand written by the dramatist for the actor to fill out that most persons find plays more dif- ficult reading than novels. List of Literary Techniques Technique Description Allusion A reference to a recognized literary work, person, historic event, artistic achievement, etc. The Birling’s home is described at the start as There will be very little to alter and only a certain amount of touches to add.” If, in accordance with this suggestion, an adapter would plan out in scenario the mere story of the novel he wishes to adapt for the stage, would then transfer to his scenario only so much of the novel as perfectly fits the needs of the stage; and finally with the aid of the original author, would rewrite the portions which can be used only in part, and with him compose certain parts entirely anew, we should have a much larger proportion of permanently successful adaptations. On the other hand, the greatest dramatists, such as Shakespeare and Moliére, in their plays reveal singularly little of themselves. Like the dramatist, they must understand char- TECHNIQUE IN DRAMA 5 acterization and dialogue or they could not have written suc- cessful stories. While the third respond is chanted, let the three others approach, all alike vested an copes, bearing thuribles, (censers) with incense in their hands, and, with hesitating steps, in the semblance of persons seeking something, let them come before the place of the sepulchre. This de- mands very skilful selection among his materials to gain his desired effects in the quickest possible ways. \ In a. play, then, while moving much more swiftly than in a novel, we must at any given moment be even clearer than in the novel. It endeavors, by show- ing the inexperienced dramatist how experienced dramatists have solved problems similar to his own, to shorten a little his time of apprenticeship. Only when he has stood the tests of these Masters is he the matured artist. And the imitative gesture has triumphed over the speech and the THE ESSENTIALS OF DRAMA 19 music in the case of the third branch of poetry; drama is thought expressed in action.” ! The other imitated the motions of a bird seeking to escape the hunter. For instance, the novelist can say, “So, in a silence, almost unbroken, the long hours passed.”” But we watching, on the stage, the scene described in the novel, know perfectly that 1 Hamburg Dramaturgy, pp. Except in rare instances, undergraduates are better employed in filling their minds with general knowledge than in trying to phrase for the stage thoughts or emotions not yet mature. In its context, however, it is as dramatic dialogue perfect. In each, something is said or done which moves the reader or hearer as the author wishes. TECHNIQUE IN DRAMA 7 than is the case with the novelist, for one swingeing blow must, with him, replace repeated strokes by the novelist. A novel runs from two hundred and fifty to six hundred pages. It is the unwise holding of an opposite opinion which has led many a successful novelist into disastrous play-writing. Even, however, if we go farther back, to the origin of Greek Drama in the Ballad Dance we shall find the same results. His- tory shows indisputably that the drama in its beginnings, no matter where we look, depended most on action. Many an attempt has been made to dramatize in one act Stevenson’s delightful story, The Sire de Maletroit’s Door, but all have come to grief because the greater vividness of the stage makes the necessary lapse of considerable time too apparent. Dramatic technique is the means of expressing, for the stage, one’s ideas and emo- tions. Detailed consideration of the one-act play has been reserved for later special treatment. The latter is trusted to fill out, in as full detail as his means or his desires permit, the hints of stage directions as to setting and atmosphere. The value of dialogue for its own sake was recognized even later. The dramatist who under- stands only the psychology of the individual or the small group may write a play well characterized, but he cannot write a successful play till he has studied deeply the psy- chology of the crowd and has thus learned so to present his chosen subject as to gain from the group which makes the theatrical public the emotional response he desires. Dramatic techniques are used by the playwright to enhance meaning and understanding amongst the audience. Shakespeare's key dramatic techniques in Macbeth include: The Supernatural. This is the technique possessed in common by the dramatists of all periods. Undeniably the dialogue of a play must be very different from that of a novel because the gesture, facial expression, intonation, and general movement of the actor may in large part replace description, narration, and even parts of the dialogue of a novel. “An Aleut, who was armed with a bow, represented a hunter, another a bird. Where lies the difficulty? Resting on what he knows of the ele- ments common to all good drama, alert to the significance of the hints which the special practice of any period may give him, he thinks his way to new methods and devices for get- ting with his public his desired effects. man : Ps yaa DRAMATIC TECHNIQUE BY GEORGE PIERCE BAKER PROFESSOR OF DRAMATIC LITERATURE IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY “eA good play is certainly the most rational and the highest Entertainment that Human Invention can produce.” COLLEY CIBBER HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY BOSTON NEWYORK CHICAGO Che Hivergide Press Cambridge COPYRIGHT, I919, BY GEORGE PIERCE BAKER ALL RIGHTS RESERVED The author acknowledges courteous permission to quote passages from copyright plays as credited to various authors and publishers in the footnotes. , like wearing the tailor- made clothes of a character carry a meaning! Tory shows indisputably that the drama, the dramatist through the eye be difficult to fully appreciate a of! 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